Frequently Asked Questions

*Page update 4th April 2022
Guidance can change rapidly according to latest information on Covid-19 and its variants. Please check back regularly for updates or email with any queries.

Understanding COVID

Testing for COVID



Home and Self-Isolation




Understanding COVID

How does Coronavirus spread?

The SARS-CoV-2 virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) that causes the coronavirus disease (COVID-19; previous referred to as the novel coronavirus) spreads from person to person through infected droplets. These can be transmitted through the air, particularly through coughs and sneezes, or via contaminated surfaces where a person may touch their face (eyes, nose or mouth) after exposure. Mask use when advised, or when in enclosed areas with those from outside your usual social bubble, is also important in reducing risk of exposure.

What is the best way I can protect myself, knowing that the virus that causes COVID-19 lives on surfaces?

You are more likely to catch the infection through the air, if you are next to someone infected, than from a surface. Thorough cleaning of surfaces with disinfectant or soap is very effective; but this does rely on proper disinfection and good hand hygiene. Make sure to use a good household cleaning spray or wipe, according to the label instructions, including precautions you should take when applying the product, such as wearing gloves and making sure you have good ventilation during use of the product. In addition to healthcare workers and other front-line staff, cleaners, caretakers and concierges play an important role in keeping people in their buildings protected from COVID-19.

Public Health guidance on protection against the COVID-19 virus includes:

  • Cleaning and disinfecting the ‘high-touch’ surfaces that many people come in contact with. These include phones, tables, bedside tables, door handles, light switches, counter tops, desks, keyboards, tablets, toilets and sinks. In addition, clean any surfaces that may have blood, stool, or body fluids on them.
  • Avoiding touching high-contact surfaces in public.
  • Appropriate use of masks. Taking care to remove the mask from behind the ears without touching the front exposed part of the mask, and cleaning your hands after removal. Washing re-usable masks regularly or disposing of single use masks as stipulated.
  • Washing your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds immediately when you return home from a public place.
  • Keeping a distance between yourself and others when in a public space; ideally 2 metres or more, particularly if in an indoor setting.
  • Most importantly, staying home if you are unwell and calling 111 if you have any flu-like symptoms that you cannot manage at home.

What do you mean by “flattening the curve”?

Epidemiologists consider how infectious diseases are by looking at various parameters of risk, namely:

  • The transmission rate of the infection (the number of people who can be infected from a single case)
  • The fatality rate (the number of deaths seen)
  • And factors including whether the transmission of the infection is possible whilst showing no symptoms at all

Without public health interventions to slow the spread of COVID-19, there are likely to be recurring large spikes in infections within a short period of time. This risks overwhelming health systems and increasing the number of deaths as a consequence. In order to slow the spread of disease to a rate at which the healthcare systems can cope requires interventions such as increased hand-washing practice, enforcing social distancing and using the telephone instead of meeting in person.

What symptoms are expected with this virus?

Typical symptoms of COVID-19, based on the current circulating variants that affect the local community include:

  • Headache (70%)
  • Nasal congestion / blocked nose (68%)
  • Weakness / fatigue (63%)
  • Muscle pains (63%)
  • Runny nose (60%)
  • Loss of taste/ smell/ appetite (54%)
  • Sore throat (53%)

Other reported symptoms include fever, hot/burning eyes, itchy eyes, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. We all experience illnesses differently, so it is difficult to state uniform symptoms.

A particular concern is protecting those most vulnerable from the potentially fatal symptoms, including severe pneumonia which can cause shortness of breath and breathing difficulties.

I’ve got the symptoms, should I be worried?
(how do you treat COVID-19 symptoms?)

If you have symptoms you should stay home, self isolate and call 111 for guidance. The symptoms of COVID-19 are very similar to a cold or the flu; for the majority of us this will mean treating symptoms at home with plenty of rest, over the counter pain relief (such as paracetamol as per recommended dose) and by staying hydrated (warm drinks and soup work well). It is important to note:

There is no single medication to treat COVID-19 at present. However, there are now a range of treatments for patients hospitalised with moderate to severe COVID-19. In the case of non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, some in selected high risk groups may be eligible for certain treatments; eligibility criteria can be found below:

Some some over-the-counter remedies advised by the GHA medical team, which may help aid recovery in COVID-19 positive patients, include:
Vitamin D tablets
Vitamin B strong tablets
Thiamine tablets
Zinc tablets or lozenges

You should also strive to maintain a clean environment; increase ventilation by opening windows, wipe down frequently touched surfaces, remove used tissues immediately and using mouthwash as part of your dental practice.
There will however, be some more vulnerable people that require additional support to manage their symptoms; please call 111 if you are concerned about worsening symptoms at any time.

If I get COVID-19 will it come back?

Following a Covid-19 infection the body will create specific antibodies that, evidence suggests, will provide some protection lasting several months. However, it is unknown whether all infected patients develop a protective immune response and how long these protective effects last beyond the first few months after infection.

The short-term risk of reinfection (eg, within the first few months after initial infection) appears low, although reinfection has been seen to occur sporadically.

If I’ve had COVID-19 will I have any long-term complications?

It is difficult to state what potential long-term consequences a person may or may not suffer following a COVID-19 infection.

For some people symptoms persist for weeks or months after the infection has gone; this is called post-COVID-19 syndrome or “long COVID”.

Symptoms may include:

  • extreme tiredness (fatigue)
  • shortness of breath
  • chest pain or tightness
  • problems with memory and concentration (“brain fog”)
  • difficulty sleeping (insomnia)
  • joint aches
  • changes to sense of taste and/or smell
  • read more HERE

If you have had COVID-19 and are concerned about any long-term consequences you can call the Primary Care Centre to have the medical staff assess/ investigate as appropriate (Tel: 200 52441).

Should I be worried about Long Covid?

Most people who experience mild symptoms, such as a high temperature and cough, recover quickly from Covid-19 and are able to resume their normal lives quickly. But some others suffer from long-term effects; the effects of Covid-19 can last for weeks or months (read above).

How long does it take to recover from Long Covid?

Unfortunately, there is currently no way to predict how long recovery from Long Covid takes. Some other viral illnesses also demonstrate longer lasting effects, and based on these illnesses symptoms likely disappear within three months but vary from person to person (tiredness for example may still be reported up to six months later).

For tips on how to best manage symptoms of Covid-19 see more from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) HERE.

Do previously positive Covid-19 cases need to isolate if identified as close contacts?

There is no longer any requirement to isolate if you are a close contact, irrespective of previous infection status; this follows the stepping down of Covid-19 restrictions (see PR here).

Testing for COVID

How do you test for COVID-19?

Nasopharyngeal swabs are used to detect respiratory viruses such as RSV or influenza viruses. A sample of secretions are gathered using a swab (which looks like an elongated Q tip) from around the nostrils and uppermost part of the throat. The procedure can be uncomfortable, and you may need to cough, retch or sneeze afterwards.

PCR or Lateral flow test?

The PCR test is the most thorough laboratory test, however it takes longer to receive a result; read more HERE.

The lateral flow test (LFT), though found to have slightly lower levels of clinical sensitivity, provides a faster result than the PCR. They are a useful indicator for home testing, and are available from pharmacies and other commercial outlets. Those wishing to use a LFT for travel purposes, with a confirmatory certificate, are advised to contact the COVID-19 Rapid Test Centre. [You can also read the LFT FAQs HERE].

How do I arrange a PCR?

Anyone wishing to book their own PCR (when they do not expect to be COVID positive e.g. for travel purposes) may utilise any of the companies currently offering this service in Gibraltar: click here for details.

Anyone who has tested positive on their own lateral flow test and require the confirmatory PCR should contact the Covid Rapid Testing service; click here for details.

Do I need to be tested when flying in to Gibraltar?

There is no current requirement to be tested when flying in to Gibraltar.

I’ve tested positive, can I get a certificate confirming this?

At present, proof of a previous Covid-19 infection is not issued as a certificate.

Those still wishing to have some form of proof of infection may request a copy of their swab result by contacting the Records Department at the GHA:


What is meant by vulnerable?

A vulnerable person is generally considered to be anyone who may have difficulty taking care of themselves, or protecting themselves against significant harm. With regard to COVID-19 those that are considered vulnerable:

  • are aged over 70 years
  • have poorly controlled long-term conditions; such as respiratory, heart, kidney, or liver disease
  • are immunosuppressed; for example, those receiving cancer treatment, taking corticosteroids, are on anti-TNF therapy or have poorly controlled HIV/AIDS
  • are part of the BAME (Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic) cohort; recent studies indicate a doubling of risk.
  • have a combination of the factors above

Read more on the GHA leaflet:

The main vulnerability is older age, above 70 years of age. You will have a reduced respiratory defence if an active smoker; now is a great time to give up. Pregnant women are monitored if found to have COVID-19; please consult with your midwife if this effects you or read more HERE.

Should carers who work with vulnerable groups be concerned?

If you work or live with a vulnerable group you should take every precaution to prevent the spread of infection; this includes availing yourself of the COVID-19 vaccine. Ensure you wash your hands regularly, maintain social distancing when appropriate, and avoid any contact with others should you begin to feel any cold or flu symptoms. Wear a face covering or mask if you are advised to; this helps to reduce the risk of unexpected spread (ensure you clean/ dispose of the items appropriately after use).

If I have been in touch with a positive case should I be worried?

If you develop any Covid-19 symptoms, it is important you home isolate, call the 111 line and relay the relevant information. If you remain well however, there is no need to isolate; you are advised to be mindful of potential onward spread should you develop the infection (e.g. be careful if you are in contact with anyone who is vulnerable, and try to keep your contact groups a reasonable size).

I have been told I cannot go to work, though I have no symptoms, what should I do?

If you have been contacted by the department of Public Health and advised to stay home you must follow this advice, regardless of whether or not you have symptoms. This isolation period will ensure there is no viral spread.

If you have not been in contact with a positive case (or contacted by Public Health), there is no need for you to avoid work. If you have any concerns, or you form part of a vulnerable cohort, you may wish to discuss COVID prevention policies and working arrangements with your employer.

Why do some people suffer more severe symptoms (e.g. being admitted to Intensive Care)?

People who have lowered immunity, are older in age or have unstable underlying medical conditions are more likely to suffer severe symptoms of COVID-19. Around half of those admitted to hospital with the infection have pre-existing chronic conditions, and deaths that have occurred are nearly all in older individuals.

Evidence is also beginning to show that people with smaller exposures have a milder illness; this highlights the importance of preventative measures such as mask wearing and physical distancing.

I’m a smoker should I be worried?

Smoking status appears to be another factor for those who become severely ill. COVID-19 appears to affect the lower respiratory passages, and by smoking you weaken the lungs and further restrict the airways, making symptoms worse. Read more HERE. If you are a smoker, it is advisable to quit or consider switching to vaping (which contains fewer poisonous ingredients and is less harmful to your body). Speak with a pharmacist or contact the PCC smoking cessation team.

I have breathing difficulties and have symptoms of a cold what do I do?

If you have monitored your symptoms and they appear to be worsening, it is advisable you seek medical advice from your GP or Nurse practitioner (call 111 for advice). In an emergency call an ambulance (190).

NOTE: It is important if you are currently under-going self-isolation you inform them of your current situation, so they know you have symptoms suggestive of COVID-19.

I have a weakened immunity/ suffer from a chronic disease (e.g. bronchitis, diabetes, asthma). Is there anything I can do?

Follow the ‘What can I do to protect myself?’ advice, taking advantage of any free vaccinations you may be offered (e.g. for COVID-19, Influenza or Pneumococcal). Continue to control any underlying conditions as you normally would (taking relevant medication).

For any queries regarding your medication contact your GP. Telephone consultations are available as follows:

  • Monday-Friday 8:30am – 7pm
  • Weekends 8:30am – 12:30pm & 5pm – 7pm.
Tel: 200 52441


What can I do to protect myself?

There are things you can do to help prevent COVID-19 from spreading and protect those who are vulnerable. Read the Self Help Toolkit for guidance (HERE) and:

  • Get vaccinated! The COVID-19 vaccines are key to helping curb infection rates and hospitalisation. The better the uptake in the community the more likely we are to achieve the desired “herd immunity”. Read more on the available vaccines here.
  • Allow sufficient ventilation when indoors. Opening a window for 10 minutes every hour for example will dilute virus particles and greatly reduce the risk of transmission.
  • Always carry tissues with you and use them to catch your cough or sneeze. Then bin the tissue, and wash your hands, or use a sanitiser gel. Catch it, Bin it, Kill it.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after using public transport and shopping. Use a sanitiser gel if soap and water are not available. 70% alcohol is best for killing viruses
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Avoid close contact with people who are unwell.
  • Wear a mask whenever advised or in close indoor public settings with those outside your usual contact ‘bubble’ [Follow the correct mask etiquette].
  • Avoid smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke. This will greatly improve your lung health. If you are a current smoker, consider quitting or switching to vaping which contains fewer poisonous ingredients.
  • Have you had the flu jab? Catching the flu on top of another infection will not go well; so if you are a front-line worker or form part of a vulnerable group ensure you get your vaccine.

What is the correct way to don Personal Protective Equipment?

Healthcare workers who are, or may be, in direct contact with COVID-19 patients are trained to correctly don and doff Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). See PHE video for reference and for more information read the infection prevention and control procedure guides on the website here.

Should I wear a mask?

Mask use is no longer mandatory, however it is still advisable whilst COVID is circulating to use a mask when the 3 C’s apply (Crowded, Confined, Close-Contact settings) e.g. retail shops and on public transport. Read more here.

What about mask exemptions?

Mask exemptions may be granted in limited unavoidable circumstances, noting the potential impact this will have on the person in question and those around them. Those requiring a mask exemption should read more HERE.

Should I wear gloves?

Public use of gloves does not stop the spread of COVID-19. You are more likely to touch your face when wearing gloves, touch dirty surfaces, and inadvertently spread the virus. Use of alcohol rubs on with gloves on may also damage the material’s integrity, reducing the barrier function. Healthcare professionals use gloves after training on their appropriate use and disposal. To help stop the spread of COVID-19 it is more beneficial to wash your hands regularly, for 20 seconds or more with soap and water.

Should I use hand cream?

Frequent washing of hands is a great way to remove germs but it can also remove the skins natural oils. In order to prevent hands from becoming too dry or cracked (which can increase your risk of carrying germs or contracting infections) it is sensible to moisturise your hands after washing them. You can also try alternating hand washing with sanitizer use when appropriate.

Are hand washing and hand sanitizer use the same?

Washing your hands with soap and warm water, following the correct method (click here for guidance), is the simplest and most affordable way to prevent the spread of germs. If you are on the go hand sanitizers or gels (containing a minimum of 70% alcohol) are a fantastic way to provide a quick hand wash solution; it is important to note that the effectiveness of hand sanitizers decreases substantially when hands are visibly dirty, so if you feel too mucky it is best to wash with soap and water. Drying hands thoroughly after washing, or allowing them time to dry after using a sanitizer, will complete the cleaning method.

Are my children safe?

People of any age can be infected by the new coronavirus (COVID-19). Children are usually fit and healthy and therefore less likely to become severely ill. Children are, however, great carriers of viruses, spreading them to more vulnerable adults, particularly grandparents. It is important to employ the same protective measure in children, encouraging good hand and respiratory hygiene practices.

Are antibiotics effective in preventing and treating the new coronavirus?

No, antibiotics do not work against viruses, only bacteria. The new coronavirus (COVID-19) is a virus and, therefore, antibiotics should not be used as a means of prevention or treatment. The best form of prevention we currently we have is getting vaccinated; the more people that get vaccinated the better the herd immunity. Some people will still catch this virus and it is best to treat it as you would the flu, stay home, keep hydrated, and get plenty of rest; call 111 if you have any concerns.

Why are some people being offered an additional booster dose?

According to your age and vulnerability it may be necessary to have a booster dose of the vaccine, in a schedule outside of the ‘norm’. For example, a small number of immunocompromised patients are offered a booster in view of a weakened immune system; they need an additional dose to help develop a good antibody response to protect them. Read more on the NHS HERE and in the Green Book (providing guidance on vaccines) HERE.

Is it possible to get a vaccination exemption?

Studies show that the COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective at preventing severe illness, hospitalizations, and death. There are some limited reasons when an individual may seek exemption from being vaccinated. Read more HERE.

Home and Self-Isolation

What is the contact tracing procedure?

When a person tests positive for COVID-19 they are asked to identify anyone who has had close contact with them during the time they are considered to be infectious. Close contacts will have been:

  • within 2 metres distance of an infected person for more than 10 minutes,
  • in direct contact with infectious secretions (e.g. being coughed on),
  • in an enclosed space (such as a household or classroom) with a positive case, for 10 minutes or more,
  • in an aircraft with a positive case, sitting within three seats in any direction (excluding the aisle seat), OR
  • a healthcare worker providing care to a positive case, or a laboratory worker handling a positive specimen, without the necessary PPE.

If you identify any vulnerable close contacts it is important to let them know they should get in touch with the Contact Tracing team.  Every effort will be made to contact them and provide the relevant advice.

I have tested positive for COVID-19, what do I need to do?

If you have tested positive for COVID-19, you need to self-isolate for 7 – 10 days, this will vary according to  your test results on day 6 & 7 (read more HERE); always follow the instructions of Public Health.

What is the self-isolation period? Why is the duration different for some people?

The recommendation for anyone who has tested positive for COVID-19 is to maintain self-isolation for 7 days, or 10 if still shedding the virus [see updated FAQs HERE]. This period is calculated based on the date of the positive test result.

What happens if I am a close contact of someone who tests positive for Covid-19?

There is no longer any requirement to isolate if you are a close contact, irrespective of previous infection or vaccination status; this follows the stepping down of Covid-19 restrictions (see PR here).

If you develop any Covid-19 symptoms at any time, please stay home and call 111 for advice.

How will my leave from work be managed during my home isolation?

The current leave recommended, for those home with symptoms or those who have tested positive for COVID-19, is sick leave. In order to be presented with a certificate for your employer you will need to email (providing details for yourself, name, DoB and infection etc. and for your employer, including their contact number and email). Any issues you may also contact 111 (or discuss directly with your line manager if you work for the GHA).


I have a holiday planned to an at-risk country, should I go?

If you do decide to travel you do so at your own risk; see FCO advice here.

If I cancel my trip, will I get my money back?

Remuneration for cancelled holidays must be discussed with your individual insurance providers; the Public Health department have no influence on their policy.

I’m currently self-isolating, as per the Public Health guidance, but I have a trip abroad planned within this period; can I go?

No. Remaining within your home/ identified accommodation for the entire home isolation period, is essential for preventing the spread of infection. Anyone who leaves the home within this self-isolation period would be in breach of the law and subject to actions taken by Royal Gibraltar Police.

I work in Gibraltar, but live in Spain, am I required to follow the same guidance?

It is advisable to contact your local Spanish Public Health Authority as you would be subject to their regulations. If you have symptoms of infection (see Symptoms above) you are advised to call 112 or 061 for assistance. Note, it is important you keep your local employer aware of any changes to your current health status.

How do I get a certificate for travel?

People who intend to travel are urged to avoid travel to areas and regions:

  • with a high incidence of COVID-19
  • where you may not be covered by insurance,
  • from which you could bring infection back into your family and community in Gibraltar.

Public Health advises that you familiarise yourself with the rules and regulations in your country of destination and, if applicable, of transit before departing Gibraltar. Further information can be obtained from the FCO Travel Advice website. Please note that different countries have different requirements for the test and the time when those tests have to be taken. It is the traveller’s responsibility to ensure they meet those requirements.

To book a PCR test and arrange a travel certificate it is necessary to contact one of the Private Companies now providing this service: click here.

Will my local vaccine App work abroad?

The GHA COVID Pass App is designed to retrieve and display your Digital Vaccine Certificate QR codes using your GHA Covid Vaccine records. It is electronically signed as authentic by the UK’s NHSx Covid Passport certification [Apply HERE, Read more HERE].

Whilst the App is compatible with UK code reading systems, it is also possible to create (once you have the GHA Covid Pass QR codes available) an EU Covid Certificate. Read more HERE.

I’ve returned from another country; do I need to do anything?

There are no current restrictions for anyone entering Gibraltar; neither by plane or via our land frontier. 


Will I die?

The World Health Organisation (WHO) highlight that case fatality ratios vary widely by country, from less than 0.1% to over 25%. This variation occurs for several reasons including accurate surveillance (knowing how many people are infected or die from the virus), intensity of transmission (considering for example, how quickly the virus spreads from one person to another or the resources available to combat it) and access to healthcare systems (in order to effectively treat complications arising from infection). The main areas of concern for us in Gibraltar are panic and a rapid rise in cases that could overwhelm local services. It is already clear that those who are vulnerable are more likely to suffer the most severe symptoms, and in order to safeguard them it is important to:

  • Stay up-to-date with our vaccine schedules.
    Take advantage of the COVID-19 vaccine if and when you are offered it. There are ample opportunities for you to discuss any concerns you may have with nursing staff and doctors prior to the delivery of the vaccine.
  • Maintain good hand and respiratory hygiene. Catch it, Bin it, Kill it.
  • Maintain social distancing. Calling instead of visiting in person, and helping providing assistance such as helping with their food shopping and leaving it on their doorstep for them to receive.
  • Support their access to a healthy lifestyle; which includes a healthy diet, regular physical activity, and avoiding second-hand smoke.

Can someone die from Covid-19 even if they have recovered?

The swabbing and PCR analysis tests for SARS-CoV-2 identify the genetic material found in the virus (RNA), not the virus itself. This viral material deteriorates as the body mounts an immune response, such that after 10 days, the only thing being identified by further tests are fragments of RNA, not of viable virus. This means that a person who tests positive for the virus is infectious for a around 7 – 10 days from their positive test result. After these days, the person is usually no longer infectious even though parts of the RNA may be found.

Once a person tests positive for having COVID-19 they are automatically deemsed to have recovered 10 days later (or 7 if testing negative on day 6/7 lateral flows). This means only that the person is no longer deemed actively infectious,  it does not mean the person who had COVID-19 has now fully recovered. Both the virus and illness can persist. This includes the state now being referred to as long COVID; this may be where the virus persists in the organs, or the damage caused by the presence of the virus in the body reveals itself over time.

A person can therefore die from COVID-19, even though they are no longer infectious; they may be marked as recovered, but the disease they suffer from (COVID-19) can persist over time. It is also possible to die with COVID-19 in a situation where death was inevitable, but coincidentally the person has contracted COVID-19. The confusion is between the virus and the disease. Public Health record the virus, and a death certificate will record the disease.

Can I run away and hide?

Having a reduced social bubble size is a good way at present to reduce the risk of viral spread. Going out for shopping and essentials should continue as normal, being cautious to clean hands and maintain distance where possible particularly if you are a vulnerable person. It is important to remember that we must learn to live with this virus; it is already established worldwide, with new strains developing, and our aim is to reduce infection rate and any pressure on healthcare services that could become unsustainable. For most of us, catching the coronavirus will feel a lot like the flu; how many of us run away & hide when it is flu season? What we need to do is ensure we protect our most vulnerable.

Does garlic work?

Eating garlic is not a preventative measure for the COVID-19 virus. Read about this and more common myths here.

How long will the illness last?

The length of time you can expect to be ill for will vary according to multiple factors including for example whether you have a pre-existing medical condition or if you are a current smoker. Generally speaking, you can expect to feel unwell for one to two weeks much as you would with other viral infections. A dry cough, change in taste, or some tiredness may persist for a few weeks after testing negative for COVID-19, though these are not of themselves a sign of active infection.

Do I have to keep my children at home?

If your child has no symptoms of COVID-19 you do not need to keep your child at home. The Department of Education will provide updates for COVID-19 in regard to children in education as required.

It is advisable that all children remain aware of the importance of hand and respiratory hygiene, and that parents continue to reinforce this. [See best prevention advice here].

My child, of school age, has tested positive- what do I do?

If your child has tested positive for COVID-19 you should follow the advice given by the Health Protection team from the department of Public Health. Read more on managing self-isolation HERE).

You should contact the school or nursery that your child attends to ensure that they are aware of the diagnosis, although it is likely that they will already have been contacted by Public Health.

Can I take antivirals to protect myself?

You are not recommended to commence any anti-viral treatments without consultation with your healthcare practitioner. For those who are eligible, there are certain anti-virals shown to help reduce symptoms of COVID-19 infection; read more HERE

What if I take corticosteroids – am I protected?

Corticosteroids have not been found to be effective in early stages of a COVID-19 infection. The first or early infection stage, appears to respond better to antiviral therapies. In the second or later stage of infection, COVID-19 is driven by an exaggerated immune/ inflammatory response which may mean that immunosuppressive/ anti-inflammatory therapies such as corticosteroids are more likely to be beneficial; however, treatment with corticosteroids should be implemented by clinicians in a hospital setting where the correct and safe dose can be administered.

Does vitamin D reduce the severity of COVID-19 symptoms?

The Lancet, a prominent medical journal, highlights that the issue of vitamin D supplementation has been extensively debated, with arguments in favour and against. Vitamin D levels are not only seen to influence bone health, but also known to influence inflammatory responses within the body; and reduce respiratory tract infections. Groups that traditionally exhibit vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, such as older adults, nursing home residents, and BAME populations, are the same groups that have also been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Additionally, increased time spent indoors due to lockdowns and shielding measures may mean that some people are not able to maintain adequate physiological levels of vitamin D from sunlight.

NICE guidance suggests that vitamin D supplements be taken as part of a general wellbeing plan, as opposed to being used solely to prevent or treat COVID‑19. Read more HERE.